The Cell Biological Basis of Cancer
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This literature review explores the current knowledge of cancer in humans on the cellular level. The review will delve into the critical points on the topic of cancer, with a focus on the biological processes and attributes that characterize cancer cells. These critical points include the generation of cancer, the effect of cancer on a cell’s function, proliferation, tumor growth and development, avenues for preventing the spread of cancer cells as well as treating cancerous conditions, and exploring the use of model organisms and systems in biomedical research to study the disease. Specifically, the review first discusses the genetic instability that characterizes cancer. Next, a discussion of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes reveals well-known mutational pathways by which cancerous conditions arise. Disruption of signaling pathways, as well as the mechanisms of angiogenesis and invasion that characterize malignancies, are also discussed. Finally, the review will look into cancer therapy and the role that biological and computational models play in elucidating cellular abnormalities that can be exploited in pharmacological treatment.