Proposing a sustainable urban design by the introduction of a new multi-modal transportation system in the United States: A case study in Oxford, Ohio
Since the 20th century, considerable attention is paid in the United States to how sustainability applies in several mid-size American cities. Sustainable urban design leads to having a more convenient life, while improving economic conditions. Finding a sustainable approach to reach economic opportunities is desirable. Considering sustainable transportation has been the subject of much consideration now. Whereas, public transportation system provides people with shared mobility, ease of access to employment, and community engagement points; most of the U.S cities were designed to use private vehicles since 1950s. Now, U.S. is challenging with critical public transportation problems that force responsible parties to re-think urban planning of their cities. In addition, the expansion of low-density development sprawl resulting in more traffic congestion due to the usage of personal automobile, negatively affecting people’s lives and increase the demand for more public transportation systems. In this study, changing car-oriented cities to multi-modal public transit system that requires an urban transformation is addressed in the college town of Oxford, Ohio. Oxford, Ohio faces transportation challenges in its urban fabric. But in near future, there will be an AMTRAK stop from New York to Chicago route in the city. As a result, a design for AMTRAK stop is needed. Now, the infrastructure of the city does not support as many cars, bicycles, and pedestrians, especially around future AMTRAK station. There is a lack of safe, and reliable transportation alternatives in Oxford, Ohio. Hence, this study will provide a multi-modal transportation by introduction of more walkable areas, bicycle lines, public places, and a mixed-use development including commercial, residential, hotel, research center, and station to support a transit-oriented development (TOD) around the station. This paper reviews best practices in several cities such as Stanford, California, Urbana Champaign, Illinois, and Copenhagen, Denmark, Europe to consider how cities, specifically the university towns, could benefit from specific policies where new architectural interventions would support more livable urban areas as well as more economic opportunities.